基于微波测距的三维位移监测装置及方法

Microwave distance measurement-based three-dimensional displacement monitoring device and method

Abstract

The invention discloses a microwave distance measurement-based three-dimensional displacement monitoring device and method. The method comprises the steps of: establishing a reasonable reference coordinate system and a datum point, transferring a datum and a method for space multi-satellite three-dimensioning positioning of a GPS (Global Position System) on the ground in a reference manner, replacing space multiple satellites with a microwave distance measurer to generate a positioning signal; at a monitored point, replacing a GPS receiver with a microwave passive reflector to reflect the signal; applying a total station high-precision phase distance measurement method to microwave distance measurement for replacing a GPS time distance measurement method to improve measurement precision; and obtaining three-dimensional coordinate values of a monitored point by using a relation equation set between the measurement distance and the coordinate values of the datum point, and obtaining a three-dimensional displacement variable of the monitored point through comparing difference values of coordinates before the monitored point is changed. For the optical total station, the method is noteasily influenced by the environment; and for the GPS, the method has the advantages of low cost and high precision, and provides a new solution thread for the health monitoring of large structures.
本发明公开了一种基于微波测距的三维位移监测装置及方法,通过建立合理的参考坐标系和基准点,将GPS的空间多颗卫星三维定位的基准及方法借鉴地转移到地面上,用微波测距仪取代空间多颗卫星来产生定位信号;在被监测点处,用微波无源反射器取代GPS接收机来反射信号;将全站仪高精度相位测距方法应用于微波测距,取代GPS时间测距方法来提高测量精度;利用测量距离和基准点坐标之间的关系方程组,获得被监测点的三维坐标值,通过比较被监测点变化前后坐标的差值,进而获得被监测点的三维位移变化量。相对于光学全站仪而言该方法不易受环境影响,相对于全球卫星定位系统而言该方法成本低、精度高,为大型结构健康监测提供新的解决思路。

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